# MacKay Minutes 2016/06/09

## How did we do on our todo list?

• Laura:
• Continue with Climate normals -- plots?
• Continue putting R code on mathstat. Good start, having figured out how to handle the missing values.
• Compare new Port Hastings data with old stuff
• What's the relationship between soil temperature and air temperature?
• Look specifically for mathematical models of soil temperature built on air temp and (possibly) precipitation
• Put interesting references and quotes into bibliography section of our website.
• Compute estimated data for missing values from 1922 and 1923, and then
• get small multiple images to add to the rest for next week
• Steve
• Steve was off the hook!

Sorry! I keep forgetting that you don't have a website with working links -- just a paper copy! Were you able to find any of these? If so, what did you think?

• Archer:
• Chapter 2: Blackbodies, pp. 9-18; Conic sections, spherical geometry. This section contains some basic physics, and I intended to share some basic mathematics as well (e.g. ellipses, and other facets of orbits and planetary dynamics -- assuming that the Earth is a sphere -- to help students understand the Milancovic theory of climate).
• p. 11: "IR light interacts mostly with vibrations of the chemical bonds of a molecule"
• p. 13: "If energy can flow from the light to the oscillator, it can also flow the other way, from the oscillator to light." (Kirchhoff's law)
• p. 13: blackbody: a "chunk of matter that vibrates at all possible frequencies, it would be able to absorb or emit all the different frequencies of light." p. 14 shows the some of the emissions spectra as a function of temperature. (p. 14 also describes another scissors experiment that Laura may want to carry out...:)

## Moving forward

• We need to begin writing up our results (it's best to add them to the paper as they are discovered -- it's always easier to throw things out at the end than to remember where something was, or how you did it). I'll take a crack at that for next week.
• Climate and first appearance: what is our model?
• Do atmospheric temp and precipitation constitute "climate"?
• Soil temperature as a function of climate
• Can we use the rank one version of our five favorite species, to reduce noise? We create one new variable from the top five, and follow it through time and space....

## In the News

• For Madison!:) These elephant seals just taught scientists why Antarctica is melting so fast: When it comes to the current research, the seals are outfitted with tiny sensors atop their heads, which do not interfere with their swimming behavior. “It’s really cool, and it usually lasts for about six months, and then when they molt, it falls off,” Zhang said. The sensors send data about depth, temperature and salinity of the waters the seals are swimming through.
• World carbon emissions stopped growing in 2015, says BP: Move towards renewable energy and away from coal power helped stall emissions growth last year but slowdown may be temporary, says oil giant
• Warming climate causing extensive greening in Canada, Alaska: study: Temperatures are warming faster in the Arctic than any other place on Earth. The region is experiencing longer growing seasons and soils are experiencing changes. Tundras are growing shrubbery, and those that are already there are getting thicker. While the repercussions aren’t immediately understood, there is mounting evidence that this could eventually affect the carbon cycle.

## Todo for next week

• Andy
• Begin writing up our results so far.
• like Madison, will think about how to turn air temperatures into soil temperatures
• Laura:
• will try to create surrogate variables and see how they regress against the coordinates of the 10 sites over time.