is the most beautiful math ever! Here are some of the reasons:
That alone is sufficient: a simple, elegant, lovely little equation linking five of the most important mathematial constants in the universe:
- 1 -- no doubt the #1 number
- 0 -- add 0 and you can write any number, using binary. So all the rest are just icing on the cake!
- -- Babylonians, Archimedes -- a rich past!
- -- imaginary, but not unimportant.
- -- Euler proved irrational in 1737; Hermite proved transcendental in 1873.
Links exponentials to sines and cosines
Exponentials -- one of math's most important modeling tools for growth and
decay of natural systems -- are linked to sines and cosines -- math's
workhorses for periodic and oscillatory phenomena. The Taylor Series for sines
and cosines fall right out of the Taylor series for the exponential, which is
simply too marvelous for words (one needs some symbols and equations...)!
By identifying real and imaginary parts of this, we get the expansions for sine
Is a treasure trove of trig identities
for those of us who eschew memorization (for lack of a memory, say!). This permits us to memorize only a few things and to deduce the rest. The key is Euler's formula, via
re-expressed using Euler's formula:
Multiplying out, we have a pair of identities
(once we identify real and imaginary parts).
From these all the usual trig identities can be derived (half angle, double
De Moivre's theorem
can also be simply and elegently derived, via